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In terms of the fiscus, South Africa expects to run a deficit of -4.1 per cent in 2023, however, the deficit is expected to narrow for the next 3 years closing 2026 at -3.6 per cent. This demonstrates significant fiscal consolidation.

Over the next 3 years the South African government expects to consolidate its public finances and reduce its deficit by inter alia increasing revenues and or managing or containing costs. According to Investec, “The current fiscal year (2022/23) has seen a substantial boost to nominal (actual) GDP due to high inflation, which has eased both the fiscal debt and deficit projections as a per cent of GDP, although does not boost real GDP, which is the measure of the country’s growth and has the distorting effect of inflation removed.”

Among countries in Africa, South Africa is getting its public financial act together. The country is paying down its debts, inflation has been showing a strong downward trajectory. What remains to be seen is whether this decreasing inflation rate will continue.

Fast food giant, Simbisa Brands Ltd., the firm that controls high-profile restaurant chains across African markets, spurred its planned VFEX listing, notifying investors in a comprehensive roadmap that the deal may be through by December 2, 2022.

Simbisa, which has risen from its Zimbabwean roots to establish a formidable African network, executes its strategy through a string of high-end hospitality brands that include the flagship Chicken Inn, Pizza Inn, Creamy Inn and Bakers Inn, one of the country’s biggest bread producers.

It also holds the franchises for quick service restaurant chain; Rocomamas, Nandos and Steers, along with Galito

In a statement that disclosed Simbisa’s rationale to switch from the ZSE, the firm’s board rallied shareholders to give an emphatic nod to the transaction at an extraordinary general meeting scheduled for November 18, 2022.

Enhancing financial literacy is only one of the numerous ways Africa’s youth may be prepared for the future. Stakeholders must simplify financial literacy education and make it practical. Without simplified and functional financial literacy, one could fall victim to the prevailing financial challenges in a highly changing world marked by technological advancements. Improving financial literacy in Africa’s youth will help improve financial inclusion.

In times of economic volatility like during a recession cash king. Cash provides investors with a buffer to absorb the shocks that may comes from a bad economy but also the ability to take full advantage of the opportunities that are sure to arise as investors run for the doors.

Shrewd investors who realize this will always make cash or dry powder provisions in their investment portfolios. They do this by keeping cash in their brokerage or bank accounts or investing in near-cash securities like money market accounts and certificates of deposits.

Cash is important because in a recession good quality securities and investments can be bought for knockdown or bargain basement prices. This can only be realized if an investor to begin with did not lose their nerve at the prospect of a recession and secondly decided to keep a significant portion of their portfolio in cash.

The major petroleum groups had long been reluctant to become involved in Chadian oil fields. The fields in the central/western and northern parts of the country were located in areas of chronic insecurity.

Then, an unprecedented arrangement was made. The World Bank agreed to finance using public funds. The pipeline would later allow the private operators Exxon, Chevron, and Petronas to transport their crude oil to the Cameroonian port of Kribi. This would enable shipping to European or American refineries, where the oil could be offered on the market at prices that the cost of the transport infrastructure would not burden.

Chad faces military challenges on most of its borders which should be factored as a risk. In the west, in the region of Lake Chad, the army has been fighting the Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram since 2015. On the border with Sudan, Eastern Chad has seen conflicts between different ethnic groups. Northern Chad is also unstable, sparsely populated, and difficult to control. Several Chadian rebel groups have set up their base in neighbouring southern Libya. Despite these problems, Chad’s armed forces are considered by many analysts to be the most effective in the Sahel.

The difficulty of transferring commodities throughout Africa is not new to the continent. It is currently a key impediment to the AfCFTA’s prospects, especially in building regional industrial supply chain clusters. Africa’s massive infrastructure deficit has hindered regional trade and economic integration for decades, notably in transportation and supply chain fragmentation.

Some parts of the continent, specifically areas surrounding East African nations, do far better in cross-border movement and trade. However, most African countries fare poorly on metrics such as cross-border clearance processes. According to the World Bank’s Logistics Performance Index, the regions also struggle with trade quality, infrastructure, inconsistent tax regimes, and consignment trace and track techniques.

Digitalisation in Africa’s logistics industry will address some of these difficulties. Furthermore, the development of digital logistics startups has aided in the facilitation of connection, which is critical to the movement of commodities within the area and across borders.

Countries must continue to work to mitigate their vulnerabilities over time. This involves minimizing balance-sheet misalignments, establishing money and foreign exchange markets, and lowering exchange rate passthrough by increasing monetary policy credibility.

However, in the short term—while vulnerabilities remain high—the use of extra instruments may assist relieve short-term policy trade-offs when certain shocks occur. In particular, foreign exchange intervention, macroprudential policy measures, and capital flow controls may help increase monetary and fiscal policy autonomy, promote financial and price stability, and minimize output volatility if reserves are enough and these instruments are available.